Cardano's Extended UTXO Model vs. Ethereum's Account-Based Model

Cryptocurrencies like Cardano's ADA and Ethereum's Ether take different architectural approaches for handling transactions on their blockchains. Cardano uses an extended unspent transaction output (UTXO) model, while Ethereum employs an account-based model. Understanding the differences between these two models provides insight into the unique capabilities and tradeoffs of each blockchain network.

How Cardano's Extended UTXO Model Works

At its core, Cardano's extended UTXO model builds upon the UTXO model originated by Bitcoin. With UTXO-based blockchains like Bitcoin and Cardano, cryptocurrencies are not stored in user accounts. Instead, your ADA balance derives from the sum of all unspent transaction outputs (UTXOs) associated with your addresses.

Each UTXO functions as a coin or token that has a fixed value. When you make a transaction, your wallet selects enough UTXOs to cover the transfer amount and "spends" them by making them the inputs of the transaction. The network creates new UTXOs as outputs assigned to the recipient's address. Your remaining UTXO values determine your new ADA balance after the transaction completes.

Cardano extends the basic UTXO model with multi-asset support and native smart contracts. The extended UTXO model allows layer-2 protocols to run complex dApps while still benefiting from UTXOs' security and scalability.

How Ethereum's Account-Based Model Works

Unlike UTXO-based systems, Ethereum and other account-based blockchains track balances and transactions using accounts. Your Ether balance is stored in an account assigned to your wallet address.

When you make a transaction, the Ethereum network adjusts the balances in your account and the recipient's account rather than consuming UTXOs and creating new ones. Smart contracts also have associated accounts that can send and receive transactions.

This model allows significant flexibility, including smart contracts transferring tokens between accounts without touching the ETH balance. However, account balances rely on the network to track state, whereas UTXOs are immutable after creation.

Key Differences and Benefits

The UTXO and account models have fundamental differences that lead to distinct advantages:


UTXOs rely on unchangeable cryptography for integrity, while account balances use state stored by the network. If improperly implemented, the latter creates potential attack vectors.


UTXO transactions can be validated in parallel, enabling greater scalability. Account-based systems require sequential processing to handle state changes.


UTXO transactions finalize quickly without waiting for block confirmations. Account-based systems need confirmations to prevent double-spends.

Smart Contracts

Ethereum's account model naturally supports Turing-complete smart contracts. Cardano requires layer-2 protocols for this functionality.


Cardano's UTXO model allows predictable transaction fees based on data size. Ethereum has variable gas fees depending on computation complexity.

"The extended UTXO model gives Cardano the best of both worlds - the security and scalability of UTXOs with the ability to support advanced capabilities. Meanwhile, Ethereum's account model enables flexible and rich smart contract functionality."
  • A balanced perspective on the UTXO vs account-based models

Key Takeaways

In summary, UTXO and account-based blockchains have distinct strengths:

  • UTXOs optimize for security, predictability, and scalability. Transactions finalize quickly without centralized state.
  • Accounts allow flexible tokenization and advanced smart contracts. State changes enable complex interactions.

There is no objectively superior model - each has advantages that suit different goals and use cases. Understanding these tradeoffs helps inform blockchain architecture decisions and product roadmaps.

How Might Hybrid Models Emerge?

With increased research into blockchain architectures, we may see hybrid models that blend aspects of UTXO and account-based systems. For example, using UTXOs for base-layer transactions while enabling account-style smart contracts on layer 2. Mixing models in this way could combine the best of both worlds.

Should You Build on Cardano or Ethereum?

For many developers, choosing between Cardano and Ethereum comes down to the priorities for their decentralized applications:

  • If you need an advanced smart contract platform right now, Ethereum is likely the best choice.
  • If you prioritize security, scalability, and sustainability, Cardano's technology stack stands out.
  • For the widest range of capabilities, building on both networks may be an option.

There is room for multiple blockchains to coexist in the Web3 ecosystem. Assess your specific needs and constraints when deciding on a development platform.

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