Examining Stock-to-Flow Model Applicability to Tether Stablecoin

The stock-to-flow (S2F) model has gained popularity in recent years as a way to potentially predict the future price of Bitcoin. However, some critics argue that the model may not apply well to other cryptocurrencies such as Tether. In this article, we'll examine the S2F model and analyze its applicability specifically when it comes to the Tether stablecoin.

What is the Stock-to-Flow Model?

The stock-to-flow model was originally created to analyze precious metals markets. The model looks at the existing stock of a commodity and the new flow of production, and uses the ratio between the two to make price forecasts.

For Bitcoin, the model considers the existing stock of mined Bitcoin and the new flow of Bitcoin being mined each year. Bitcoin has a limited and gradually decreasing flow of new supply, while the stock continues growing. This results in an increasing S2F ratio over time.

Bitcoin supporters argue this dynamic leads to increasing scarcity and value. As the flow of new Bitcoin decreases but demand increases, the model predicts the Bitcoin price should rise exponentially.

Why Might the Model Not Fit Tether?

When examining whether the stock-to-flow model can accurately forecast Tether prices, there are a few key differences to consider between Tether and Bitcoin:

Unlimited Supply

Unlike Bitcoin, Tether does not have a fixed maximum supply. The supply of Tether can increase as needed based on demand. This unlimited supply could prevent the increasing scarcity that drives up Bitcoin prices in the S2F model.

Lack of Mining Reward Halvings

Bitcoin's flow decreases over time because its mining reward halves every 4 years. Tether does not involve mining, so it lacks predictable halvings that decrease the flow. The flow of new Tether depends only on market demand.

Price Stability Goal

Tether aims to maintain a stable $1 USD peg at all times. It does not aim to experience the increasing price and volatility predicted by the S2F model. The model may not fit a stablecoin designed to avoid price appreciation.

Factors that Could Impact Tether Price

While Tether strives for $1 USD stability, its price can fluctuate in certain conditions. Some factors that may influence Tether price include:

  • Supply and demand imbalances - If demand greatly exceeds supply, Tether could trade above $1. The reverse imbalance could make it trade below $1.
  • Loss of trust in reserves - Tether claims USDT is backed 1:1 with reserves. If that assurance comes into question, the Tether peg may break.
  • Regulatory changes - Regulators worldwide are increasingly scrutinizing stablecoins. Regulatory limitations on stablecoin issuance or use could impact price.
  • Competition - The rise of other stablecoins could reduce demand for Tether, potentially lowering its market price.

Can Any Model Reliably Predict Tether Price?

Given the factors unique to Tether, it appears unlikely that the stock-to-flow model can accurately and reliably forecast its future price. Tether's unlimited supply, lack of supply halvings, and stability goal differentiate it fundamentally from the dynamics behind the S2F model.

While no model can predict Tether's price perfectly, analysts may find better luck examining indicators specific to stablecoin demand, supply changes, reserves confidence, and competition levels. Even then, unexpected regulatory shifts could disrupt such forecasts.

Ultimately Tether aims for solid 1:1 dollar backing and redemption at par to maintain its peg. If that user confidence holds, the market may largely ignore theoretical pricing models and continue valuing USDT at $1 USD.

"Theories can aim to explain the past and present, but the future often has surprises in store."

Can Tether Maintain its Peg Long-Term?

Tether has maintained its 1:1 USD peg relatively consistently since launch, but some question if this stability is sustainable long-term. There are reasonable debates around Tether's longevity:

The case for Tether stability

  • Has maintained peg through volatility for years already
  • Backed by sizable reserves according to audits
  • High usage and demand provides value to peg
  • Serves a clear purpose as dollar proxy in crypto

The case against long-term stability

  • Transparency around reserves remains imperfect
  • Regulatory risk still looms large
  • Fierce competition from other stablecoins
  • Private companies cannot guarantee endless stability

The future likely holds some volatility for Tether, but its peg is not necessarily doomed. With trust maintained in its reserves and redemption mechanism, Tether may well continue trading stably at $1 most of the time. But critics will remain skeptical until Tether weathers more years and adoption at scale.

How Might a U.S. CBDC Impact Tether Stability?

A U.S. central bank digital currency (CBDC) could be a game-changer for private stablecoins like Tether. Some potential impacts if a digital dollar emerges include:

  • Reduced stablecoin demand - The safety and ubiquity of a CBDC could replace much Tether usage.
  • Increased competition - Tether would compete against the CBDC directly as a dollar proxy in crypto.
  • Higher regulatory scrutiny - Stablecoins may face stricter oversight if now competing versus a government option.
  • Mission change - Tether could pivot to try serving a specific use case distinct from the CBDC.

It remains to be seen how disruptive a central bank digital currency might be globally. But a conveniently usable digital dollar could greatly reduce reliance on stablecoins like Tether in the United States at least. Tether's long-term stability may require adapting nimbly as the crypto landscape evolves.


The stock-to-flow model has limitations when applied to Tether given Tether's unlimited supply and stability goals. While no model predicts Tether's future price perfectly, its dollar peg remains intact for now through maintained user trust. However, Tether faces challenges to longevity from regulatory uncertainty, competition, and the possible emergence of central bank digital currencies. Maintaining its 1:1 USD peg long-term will likely require continued transparency and responsiveness to a changing crypto environment.

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